Aplicación de herramientas moleculares para el mejoramiento genético de pasturas

Resumen

Objetivo: Fundamentar la importancia de la aplicación de herramientas moleculares en los programas de mejoramiento genético de pasturas.


Materiales y Métodos: Se consultaron y analizaron 59 artículos, que abordan los métodos basados en biología molecular (marcadores genéticos, tecnología CRISPR y citogenética molecular), disponibles en bases de datos (Google académico, Dialnet, Redalyc, SciELO, REDIB, DOAJ y Latindex), con el propósito de obtener información acerca de su aplicación en la mejora genética de pastos.


Resultados: Se recopiló información acerca de los principales marcadores moleculares (microsatélites, ADN polimórfico amplificado aleatoriamente, polimorfismo de un solo nucleótido, polimorfismo de longitud de fragmento amplificado), utilizados para analizar la diversidad genética en pastos. Se investigó cuáles resultan más efectivos y versátiles. Se constató que el fenómeno de la apomixis se puede utilizar para mantener el vigor híbrido en líneas de pastos y que los marcadores moleculares contribuyen a identificar plantas apomícticas en edades tempranas. Se fundamentó que la tecnología CRISPR (repeticiones palindrómicas cortas agrupadas y regularmente espaciadas) se puede aplicar en especies de pasturas para mejorar atributos agronómicos.


Conclusiones: Los marcadores moleculares, especialmente SNPs, son ideales para estudios de diversidad genética en pastos y para la identificación de plantas apomícticas a edades tempranas. La tecnología de edición genómica CRISPR constituye una herramienta versátil y aplicable en pastos.

Citas

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Publicado
2021-10-28
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CARRODEGUAS-GONZALEZ, Ayerin; ZÚÑIGA-OROZCO, Andrés. Aplicación de herramientas moleculares para el mejoramiento genético de pasturas. Pastos y Forrajes, [S.l.], v. 44, oct. 2021. ISSN 2078-8452. Disponible en: <https://payfo.ihatuey.cu/index.php?journal=pasto&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=2243>. Fecha de acceso: 06 dic. 2021
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